Friday, December 28, 2007


The Authors : Zulkifli Mantau, Derek Polakitan, Sudirman Mokoginta

The Assessment Institute of Agricultural Technology (AIAT) North Sulawesi


The objectives of this research are: 1) to find a model of a rich-fish-duck farming system in a specific location; 2) to increase the farmer’s income through diversification of farm commodities; 3) to generate a model of a farming system which is sustainable, profitable and environmentally friendly. The introduced technologies are 1) a pond a construction of a canal surrounding the lowland-rice field with 20% in size from the total width in which the canal is one meter wide 50 – 60 cm deep; 2) rice planting with one plant (21 days old) per hole with a planting distance of 20 x 20 cm; 3) the fish population density is 10 fishes/m2; 4) duck husbandry was designed to have a stage stable system. Safety fences were built around the lowland rice field area. The duck population density is 100 ducks/ha. Several farming models were employed i.e. A) paddy monoculture; B) rice and fish; C) rice and duck; D) rice, fish and duck. Four farmers tending each model and considered to be the treatment replication were involved. Results showed that the highest production of paddy was observed at the application of integrated farming systems of rice-fish, rice-duck and rice-fish-duck with 7,20 tons/ha/harvest as compared to the monoculture system with only 3,79 ton/ha/harvest. The highest production of fishes was at in the rice-fish-duck system (5.92 ton/ha/harvest). The rice-fish model produced only 4, 85 ton fish/ha/harvest. The highest production of duck eggs was obtained at in the rice-fish integrated farming model with 244 eggs/ha/harvest as compared to the rice-fish-duck mix farming with only 232 eggs/ha/harvest. However, based in economic analysis, the highest net profit was gained at in the rice-duck farming model with Rp 430.814.115/year and BC-ratio of 9,35. The second profitable farming system was the rice-fish-duck model with net profit of Rp 136.511.328/year and BC-ratio of 2,51. The paddy monoculture model showed the lowest value BC-ratio of 0,26 making this model not suitable to be adopted by farmers.

Keywords : rice, fish, duck, integrated farming system.

published at EKOTON Journal Vol.3, No.3: 95-100, October 2003

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