Saturday, December 29, 2007

INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEM MAIZE AND GOAT IN COCONUT PLANTATION AREA


The Authors: Zulkifli Mantau & Derek Polakitan

The Assessment Institute of Agricultural Technology in North Sulawesi
Jl. Kampus Pertanian Kalasey

ABSTRACT
The main problem which faced by farmers in North Sulawesi was non optimal farming system effort. It caused of unintegrated farming system approach. North Sulawesi has a coconut plantation area 301.120 ha. Major in monoculture plantation system and getting old. To solve this problem is improve the farming system with apply the integrated farming system maize, goat and coconut. It can diversify the commodity. The objective of this assessment is to introduce the land use pattern among the coconut plantation through integrated farming system with maize and goat. The assessment conducted in Pandu Station Research. The result can be reported that 1 ha coconut plantation area which hedged by gamal (Glyricidia) can result 843.2 kg forages /90 days, 0.2 ha which planted by King Grass can result 9150 kg forages /45 days, 0.6 ha maize area can harvested 2829.6 kg grain corn and 8787 kg straws. The compilation of capability of the three forages source can fulfill the 90 goats forage needs. The income increase from Rp. 634 650/year/ha to Rp. 14. 262 070/year/ha. This integrated farming system can optimalize the land productivity in coconut plantation area.
Key words : Integrated farming system maize, goat and coconut.

INTRODUCTION
Coconut is important commodity in North Sulawesi. North Sulawesi has 301.120 ha of coconut plantation (BPS SULUT 2000). The coconut commonly used as a palm oil. Unfortunately, the sell price of this commodity was very low (between Rp 1400 - 2500/ kg). Beside that, the existing production only 1,2 ton/ha/year. This is the major problem of the coconut farming (Taroreh, 2004).
To solve that problem is improve the farming system from monoculture system to integrated farming system, so that can diversify the commodity. Diversivication product is a good alternative to increase the farmer’s income. Kaligis (1999) reported that only 35% from coconut plantation width used for intercroping or there’s 65% unused plantation land. Actually, the concept of integrated farming system between plant and cattle was know by the farmer very long time, but still applied in the small land area and use the conventional management. It can be opportunity to improve to the optimal system (Diwyanto et al, 2002). In this system, the cattle has a function for : 1) guarantee for continuously farming effort through product diversification; 2) transfer the soil nutrition and energy between cattle and plant through organic fertilizer and waste product as a feed source (Diwyanto dan Masbulan, 2001). The existence of both commodity in the coconut plantation area will be open the opportunity of product diversivication in one system of farm (palawija, horticulture and forage).
The objective of this assessment is to introduce the land use pattern among the coconut plantation through integrated farming system with maize and goat.

METHODOLOGY
The assessment conducted in Pandu Station Research at Talawaan Bantik Village North Minahasa Regency between 2003 – 2004 year.
Maize – Goat Farming Pattern
The ± 25 years old of coconut tree (1 ha land width) planted with gamal around the land as a hedge and forage source for the goats. From that land width taken 2000 m2 to plant the king grass as a main forages (forage bank). 6000m2 in the center of land area planted by maize. On the area 300m2 built the stable unit and organic fertilizer processing place, feed storehouse and coconut oil processing and the waste product place.

Before plant the king grass and maize, must be do the soil tillage with tractor (twice plow and once round up) till ready to planted. The land area hedged by gamal stake with 1 m distance. The gamal stake tall 2 m, diameter 4 – 5 cm. Every ha needs 400 gamal stakes. In additional, use 5 bamboos as a barrier. The first cutting in the one years old of hedge plant and next cutting every 3 months. The ability of forages production as a observation factor.
King grass (main forages source) planted with 0,5 x 1 m distance (need 4000 stake). Planted with a dibble system (up right). The first cutting in 60 – 75 DAP appropriate the plant developt and the cutting 45 HSP with rotation system appropriate the needs of grass. If there are abundant production, the forages processed became silage (dry season needs).
Use Bisi 2 Maize variety. The maize planted by a dibble system with 20 x 80 cm planting distance (1 grain/ hole). Did twice weeded and heaped (21 Day After Planted/ DAP and 35 DAP). Fertilizer applied three times. The first application with 150 kg N/ ha, 175 kg SP-36/ha. The next application at 21 DAP and 35 DAP with 150 kg N/ha. Harvest at 103 DAP signed by the cob was dry. Observed to the production component and straw weight.

Coconut harvest
The coconut area which located the assessment was ± 30 years old with 9 x 9 m planting distance. The harvest of coconut did every 2 months or six times of the year. The coconut stem which harvested just only the old stem. Commonly, 1 – 3 stems each tree harvested. In additional, either stem and midrib of palm harvested for fuel in the coconut oil processing. The coconut yield collected and became a coconut oil. The waste product processed for cattle feed. Observed to the coconut (fruit/tree/climb period), dry midrib (tree/harvest period), coconut oil processing and derivats.

Goat Breeding
Goat breeding with cage system. All of feed and water needs always ready (Ad-libitum). The forages content are 70% king grass + maize straw and 30% Glyricidia (leguminosa). Before go into stable, the goat vaccined by antiworm. The data: feed consumption, growth rate, feed conversion rate, manure fertilizer production.
Manure fertilizer moved to the organic fertilizer processor every month. For example: heap the 1000 kg goat feces + 100 kg coconut fibre and midrib dust + 2,5 kg N + 2,5 kg SP36 + 2,5 kg calcium + 100 ml EM4 ( probiotik). It rotated every week for 4 weeks.

for more information send e-mail to : mantau66@yahoo.com or nsaiat@yahoo.com contact person : Derek Polakitan

No comments: